By I. Anktos. Aurora University. 2017.
Pernicious anemia can also damage the have warm antibody hemolytic anemia also have lym- spinal cord buy sildalis 120 mg with visa. A doctor should be notified whenever symp- phoma order sildalis 120mg on line, leukemia, lupus, or connective tissue disease. In cold antibody hemolytic anemia, the body attacks Pernicious anemia usually strikes people 50–60 years red blood cells at or below normal body temperature. Eating disorders or an unbalanced diet increases The acute form of this condition frequently develops in the risk of developing pernicious anemia. So do diabetes people who have had pneumonia, mononucleosis,or mellitus, gastritis, stomach cancer, stomach surgery, thy- other acute infections. It tends to be mild and short- roid disease, and family history of pernicious anemia. Vitamin C deficiency anemia Chronic cold antibody hemolytic anemia is most common in women and most often affects those who are A rare disorder that causes the bone marrow to man- over 40 and have arthritis. This condition usually lasts ufacture abnormally small red blood cells, vitamin C de- for a lifetime, generally causing few symptoms. Howev- ficiency anemia results from a severe, long-standing di- er, exposure to cold temperatures can accelerate red etary deficiency. Some Sickle cell anemia acquire this condition, in which infection or antibodies Sickle cell anemia is a chronic, incurable condition destroy red blood cells more rapidly than bone marrow that causes the body to produce defective hemoglobin, can replace them. Unlike normal oval cells, fragile sickle cells erate the destruction of red blood cells (hemolysis). When capillaries become obstructed, a life-threatening condition called sickle cell Thalassemias crisis is likely to occur. An inherited form of hemolytic anemia, thalassemia Sickle cell anemia is hereditary. A GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 81 child who inherits the sickle cell gene from each parent Many therapies for iron-deficiency anemia focus on will have the disease, but a child who inherits the gene adding iron-rich foods to the diet or on techniques to from only one parent will carry the sickle cell trait, but improve circulation and digestion. Some examples of iron-rich herbs are dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), parsley (Pet- Sometimes curable by bone marrow transplant, but roselinum crispum), and nettle (Urtica dioica). The potentially fatal, aplastic anemia is characterized by de- homeopathic remedy ferrum phosphoricum (iron sul- creased production of red and white blood cells and fate) can also be helpful.
HBV Hepatitis B Birth generic 120mg sildalis overnight delivery, 1–2 months discount sildalis 120mg visa, 6–18 MMR, made with live attenuated months viruses, protects against measles Polio vaccine Poliomyelitis 2 and 4 months, 6–18 months, (IPV) and 4–6 years (rubeola), mumps, and rubella (Ger- Varicella Chickenpox 12–18 months man measles). The vaccine is also recommended for people at high risk of hepatitis B infec- Preparation of Antisera Immune sera often are de- tion, including healthcare workers, people on kidney rived from animals, mainly horses. A number of vaccines have been developed against in- fluenza, which is caused by a variety of different viral Checkpoint 17-13 What is an immune serum and when are im- mune sera used? The elderly, the debilitated, and Examples of Antisera Some immune sera contain anti- children with certain risk factors, including asthma, heart bodies, known as antitoxins, that neutralize toxins but disease, sickle cell disease, HIV infection, and diabetes, have no effect on the toxic organisms themselves. It is given duce a naturally acquired active immunity and even during pregnancy if maternal antibodies develop and longer to produce an artificial active immunity through after the birth of an Rh-positive infant (or even after a the administration of a vaccine. The “ready-made” serum gives short-lived but ◗ Botulism antitoxin, an antiserum from horses offers the effective protection against the invaders in the form of an best hope for botulism victims, although only if given artificially acquired passive immunity. BODY DEFENSES, IMMUNITY, AND VACCINES ✦ 355 ◗ Rabies antiserum, from humans or horses, is used with Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis (an-ah-fih-LAK-sis) is a se- the vaccine to treat victims of rabid animal bites. Allergy and autoimmune diseases fall into include breathing problems, swelling of the throat and the first category; hereditary, infectious, and environ- tongue, urticaria, edema, and decreased blood pressure mental immune deficiency disease fall into the second. Allergy involves antigens and antibodies, and its chemi- People subject to severe allergic reactions must avoid con- cal processes are much like those of immunity. They should be sensitivity a broader term for which is hypersensitivity—can be de- tested before administration of a new drug and should also fined informally as a tendency to react unfavorably to carry injectable epinephrine and wear a medical bracelet certain substances that are normally harmless to most identifying their allergy. These reaction-producing substances are called aller- Autoimmunity gens (AL-er-jens), and like most antigens, they are usu- The term autoimmunity refers to an abnormal reactivity ally proteins. When the next ex- ◗ Loss of immune system control, as through loss of reg- posure to the allergen occurs, there is an antigen–anti- ulatory T cell activity, for example. In allergy, reaction occurs in rheumatic fever, for example, when however, the antigen–antibody reaction takes place antibodies to streptococci damage the valves of the within the cells of the sensitized tissues, with results that heart. In the case of the nasal mucosa that has become sensitized to pollen, Autoimmunity is involved in a long list of diseases, in- the allergic manifestation is hay fever, with symptoms cluding rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, lupus much like those of the common cold. Hista- All of these diseases probably result to varying degrees mine causes dilation and leaking from capillaries as well from the interaction of individual genetic makeup with as contraction of involuntary muscles (e. Antihistamines are drugs that counteract hista- diseases are three times more prevalent in women than in mine and may be effective in treating the symptoms of men, perhaps related to hormonal differences.
Epithelial Gray matter membranes are of several types: ◗ Serous (SE-rus) cheap sildalis 120 mg with amex, membranes line the White matter walls of body cavities and are folded back onto the surface of internal or- gans buy sildalis 120mg with amex, forming their outermost layer. The thin epithelium of serous mem- A more detailed discussion of nervous tissue and the branes is a smooth, glistening kind of tissue called nervous system can be found in Chapters 9 and 10. Their properties vary: covers the organs of the abdomen, and forms supporting some are fragile, others tough; some are transparent, oth- and protective structures within the abdomen (see Fig. They may contain cells that secrete lubricants to forms the lining of a closed cavity, while another part ease the movement of organs, such as the heart and lung, folds back to cover the surface of the organ contained in 66 ✦ CHAPTER FOUR that cavity. The relationship between an organ and the fibrous sac (the fibrous pericardium) that encloses the serous membrane around it can be visualized by imagin- heart (see Fig. Because internal organs are called viscera, the portion Your fist is the organ and the serous membrane around it of the serous membrane attached to an organ is the vis- is in two layers, one against your fist and one folded back ceral layer. Portions of the peritoneum that cover organs in the ab- The portion of the serous membrane attached to the domen are named according to the particular organ in- wall of a cavity or sac is known as the parietal (pah-RI- volved. Parietal pleura lines the normally are in direct contact with a minimal amount of thoracic (chest) cavity, and parietal pericardium lines the lubricant between them. The cells that line the nasal cavities and the passageways of the respiratory tract are supplied with tiny, hairlike extensions called cilia, described in Chapter 3. For example, throat infections may travel along mucous Checkpoint 4-8 Epithelial membranes have an outer layer of membranes into other parts of the upper respiratory tract epithelium. TO-sus) (SLE) and rheumatoid (RU-mah-toyd) arthritis, may affect many parts of the body because collagen is the ◗ Synovial (sin-O-ve-al) membranes are thin connective major intercellular protein in solid connective tissue. Fascia is found in two regions: For a variety of reasons, the normal pattern of cell and tis- sue growth may be broken by an upstart formation of cells ◗ Superficial fascia is the continuous sheet of tissue that having no purpose whatsoever in the body. Benign tumors grow as a single mass within a tissue, lending them neatly to We are all familiar with a number of diseases that directly complete surgical removal. These range from the common cold, as growing in situ, meaning that they are confined to their which is an inflammation of the mucosa of the nasal pas- place of origin and do not invade other tissues or spread sages, to the sometimes fatal condition known as peri- to other sites.
E 120mg sildalis with visa, enterohepatic cycling; F discount 120mg sildalis amex, extensive ﬁrst pass metabolism; h, dosage ad- justment may be necessary in patients with hepatic impairment; H, dosage adjustment recommended for patients with hepatic impairment; R, dosage adjustment necessary for patients with renal impairment. The most common adverse effects produced by the The salicylates are useful in the treatment of minor salicylates are GI disturbances. Occult blood loss from musculoskeletal disorders such as bursitis, synovitis, the GI tract, peptic ulceration, and rarely, severe GI tendinitis, myositis, and myalgia. They can be used in the bound to plasma proteins, it may be displaced by other treatment of inﬂammatory disease, such as acute rheu- highly protein-bound drugs such as oral anticoagulants, matic fever, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and cer- sulfonylureas, phenytoin, penicillins, and sulfonamides. However, effects on blood loss and produce fewer adverse GI other NSAIDs are usually favored for the treatment of effects. In addition, they may be somewhat kidney spar- these chronic conditions because of their lower inci- ing. The use of aspirin in conjunction with any other NSAID is not rec- Basic Pharmacology ommended because of the lack of evidence that such Aspirin is available as capsules, tablets, enteric-coated combinations increase efﬁcacy and because of the in- tablets (Ecotrin), timed-release tablets (ZORprin), creased potential for an adverse reaction. Salicylates are buffered tablets (Ascriptin, Bufferin), and as rectal sup- contraindicated in children with febrile viral illnesses positories. Aryl and Heteroarylakanoic Acid–Type Drugs Although aspirin itself is pharmacologically active, it is rapidly hydrolyzed to salicylic acid after its absorp- The prototypes of this large class of NSAIDs are in- tion, and it is the salicylate anion that accounts for most domethacin and ibuprofen. The supe- for the relief of acute and chronic rheumatoid arthritis rior analgesic activity of aspirin compared with sodium and osteoarthritis. In addition, a number of drugs of this salicylate implies that aspirin has an intrinsic activity class are also useful in ankylosing spondylitis, acute that is not totally explainable by its conversion to sali- gouty arthritis, bursitis, and tendinitis. Aspirin inhibits COX-1 to a much greater ex- Adverse reactions are common with the use of these tent than COX-2; sodium salicylate is more selective for drugs but usually do not result in serious morbidity. The selectivity for COX-1 and COX-2 varies The binding of salicylic acid to plasma proteins from drug to drug and accounts for some of the differ- varies with its plasma concentrations. None of the agents seems to be clearly acid concentrations of less than 100 g/mL, 90 to 95% more efﬁcacious than the others; however, they generally is protein bound; at 100 to 400 g/mL, 70 to 85% is pro- cause less GI blood loss and fewer other adverse reac- tein bound; and at concentrations greater than 400 tions than does aspirin, and the overall incidence of ad- g/mL, 20 to 60% is protein bound. At these higher Indomethacin (Indocin) is used in the treatment of concentrations, salicylate metabolism is reduced, result- acute gouty arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing ing in a longer half-life for the drug. It is not recommended consequence of the saturable enzyme systems that me- for use as a simple analgesic or antipyretic because of its tabolize salicylates. While indomethacin inhibits both has been estimated to be 3 to 6 hours at the lower (anal- COX-1 and COX-2, it is moderately selective for COX- gesic) dosage and 15 to 30 hours at the higher (anti- 1.