By Q. Kulak. Polytechnic University of New York.
Help organise information ° Use headings to break text down into more manageable chunks for the reader cheap cialis black 800 mg line. English as a second language The translation of written leaflets for clients into various languages is now fairly common order cialis black 800mg amex. However, simply translating a text does not necessarily ad dress all the issues you need to consider for clients with a different cultural and ethnic background. Cultural differences in diet, religion, health be liefs and so on need to be considered right at the start of your planning. INFORMATION LEAFLETS FOR CLIENTS 113 You will need to consider the following. The person who makes decisions about the health care of the client may not necessarily be the client himself/herself. In some cultures it is the par ents (even when children have become adults) or the male head of the fam ily who will be making the decisions. You will need to plan your approach, language and style to engage these decision makers. People from different cultural backgrounds will vary in basic everyday lifestyle issues, like diet, clothes, religion and contraception, as well as in attitudes about social issues, such as family structure, sickness and death. The client’s experience of health care may be very different from the one in which you are working. For example, a school for children with special needs may have a very different connotation for the client, or he or she may come from a health care system where the idea of a prescription is un known. Clients may hold a certain view about how a health professional should behave and the role of the client in getting better. For example, do they see the health professional as the person making all the decisions? Approaches to learning vary between cultures and this may influence how material is presented. For instance, drawings may be held in high regard in one culture whereas another may view their use in materials as childish and degrading. We can all quote examples we have seen or heard of comic errors in transla tion. However, such errors in translation of health material may be more serious in their effect.
But if you ask students to write a question on paper and turn it in generic 800 mg cialis black free shipping, you can then address some or all of these in a relatively anonymous and non threatening way buy cialis black 800mg fast delivery. Small group activity within a large group is uncommonly attempted even though it is simple to arrange for a large number of students in a theatre of any size. Once you try it out you may find it so exciting to hear the steady hum of students actually discussing your subject that you will never again feel comfortable giving a didactic lecture! The general approach is to break down the class into small groups, using a judicious rearrangement of seating if necessary. Small groups of two to four people may be formed among neighbours without any movement while larger groups may be quickly formed by two to four students in one row turning to form a groupwith students in the row behind. If a substantial amount of discussion time is planned the groups might best be formed at the beginning of the session and asked to spread themselves out to use up the whole lecture theatre space. The selection of the most appropriate grouping will largely depend on what you wish to achieve. Small groups may be asked to discuss a limited topic for a few minutes (sometimes called buzz groups) or to consider broader topics for a longer period of time. You may then wish to allow all or some of the groups to report back to you. This is a very useful exercise when problems are given to the students to solve and where a variety of different responses can be expected. One-to-one discussion is a particularly valuable technique in the situation where you might wish all the class to 28 consider a very emotive or challenging concept. This method is described in detail in Chapter 3 on Small Group Teaching. These can involve a combination of individual study and small group discussion. One example is the situation in which students are provided with an extract or article from a medical journal, a summary, a quotation, a set of diagrams or a set of clinical results. At the end of this period of individual work students are instructed to discuss something with the person beside them. They may, for instance, be asked to compare answers, draw conclusions, raise issues, identify mis- understandings or make evaluative judgements. Depending on the size of the group, you could ask for reports from all or some of the pairs, have pairs report to another pair and seek general reports from these larger groups, or have a show of hands to questions or issues you have identified as you moved around the class during the discussion phase.
They are the antigens such as bacteria or red blood cells are found to agglu- Ig G cheap 800mg cialis black visa, A buy cialis black 800mg amex, M, D, and E antibodies. It is the chief tion, or where there has been a stimulation of the plasma Ig against microbes. Antibodies are also used in laboratory its removal by other immune system cells. It gives lifetime or tests for blood typing when transfusions are needed and in a long-standing immunity against infectious diseases. It is number of different types of clinical tests, such as the highly mobile, passing out of the blood stream and between Wassermann test for syphilis and tests for typhoid fever and cells, going from organs to the skin where it neutralizes sur- infectious mononucleosis. This mobil- By definition, anything that makes the immune system ity allows the antibody to pass through the placenta of the respond to produce antibodies is an antigen. Antigens are liv- mother to her fetus, thus conferring a temporary defense to the ing foreign bodies such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi that unborn child. Or they can be dust, chemicals, After birth, IgG is passed along to the child through the pollen grains, or food proteins that cause allergic reactions. But some of Antigens that cause allergic reactions are called aller- the Ig will still be retained in the baby from the placental trans- gens. A large percentage of any population, in varying mission until it has time to develop its own antibodies. It is an antibody that pro- the body or a blood transfusion that is not of the same blood vides a first line of defense against invading pathogens and type as itself. It is There are some substances such as nylon, plastic, or found in large quantities in the bloodstream and protects other Teflon that rarely display antigenic properties. While they have basic similarities, nonantigenic substances are used for artificial blood vessels, each IgA is further differentiated to deal with the specific component parts in heart pacemakers, and needles for hypo- types of invaders that are present at different openings of the dermic syringes. Practically everyone reacts to certain chemicals, for combines five Y-shaped units), it remains in the bloodstream example, the resin from the poison ivy plant, the venoms from where it provides an early and diffuse protection against insect and reptile bites, solvents, formalin, and asbestos. Viral invading antigens, while the more specific and effective IgG and bacterial infections also generally trigger an antibody antibodies are being produced by the plasma cells. For most people penicillin The ratio of IgM and IgG cells can indicate the various is not antigenic, but for some there can be an immunological stages of a disease.