By W. Pyran. Morehead State University.
The exact structure of the phase formed depends heavily on the relative compositions of the various phases and the structure of the surfactant (see Figure 6 generic pariet 20 mg on-line. Below some critical surfactant concentration order 20 mg pariet mastercard, the system is two-phase with excess oil or water depending on the oil/water concentration. On adding more surfactant, the system moves into a one-phase region with normal micelles forming in water-rich systems. The water constitutes the continuous phase, solvating the headgroups of the surfactant whose hydro- phobic tails solubilise oil in the core of the micelle. Schematic phase diagram for a three-component (oil, water, surfactant) system showing some of the self-assembled structures which form in the various regions. Ultimately, at high surfactant compositions, liquid crystalline (lamellar) structures form. If a polymerisation occurs within one such structure, the resulting (polymer) architectures will probably closely resemble the self-assembled ones formed in our artiﬁcial sporangia. To cause ﬂocculation of the particles, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) was intro- duced with the intention of initiating a depletion interaction as described above. Although different from sporopollenin, polystyrene shares some properties and is at least reasonably well understood with regard to its col- loidal behaviour. These initial experiments proved successful and resulted in the formation of colloidal crystals like those within the spore walls, but more signiﬁ- cantly, they were built by processes and components which we believe behave in a similar manner to those in the natural system. Similar particle ﬂocculations, but of an amorphous nature and formed from particles of inconsistent size could be produced by either depletion or bridging ﬂoccu- lation. Subsequent experiments have utilised hydrocarbons and lipids (known from the natural system of wall production) to synthesise mimics resembling other types of spore wall with some success. It is disconcerting how ‘life-like’ some structures built from synthetic colloidal particles can be (Figures 6. Experiments involving mimics of sporopollenin (the principal component of spore walls) demonstrate that patterns very similar, if not identical to those of natural spores and pollen, can be produced from mixtures containing colloidal particles. GRIFFITHS aggregated particles and particle aggregates (‘raspberries’) are self-assem- bling from polystyrene latex in a water/cyclohexane emulsion. These are comparable to ‘raspberries’ and aggregated particles of sporopollenin formed during the development of Selaginella spores (Figure 6.
Myson Yaster Departments of Anesthesiology pariet 20mg line, Critical Care Medicine buy 20 mg pariet amex, and Pediatrics, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, U. Kaleb Yohay Departments of Neurology and Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, U. Yurcheshen Department of Neurology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, U. Department of Neurological Surgery, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland, U. INTRODUCTION Craniosynostosis, premature fusion of the coronal, sagittal, metopic, and=or lamb- doidal sutures, may be primary or secondary to a wide range of poorly characterized genetic, nutritional, toxicological, and mechanical inﬂuences. Craniosynostosis also can be found when intracranial contents are markedly reduced, such as when patients are overshunted and sutures subsequently override and fuse or in cases of severe cerebral atrophy. The condition may be ‘‘isolated,’’ involving a single suture, or ‘‘complex,’’ involving multiple sutures. The manifestations have been classiﬁed as ‘‘nonsyndromic’’ and ‘‘syndromic. Defects in ﬁbro- blast growth factor receptor (FGFR) genes have been identiﬁed by several groups. Apert, Pfeiffer, Jackson-Weiss, and Crouzon syndrome associate with mutations in FGFR genes. However, pathophysiology may be heterogenous because clinical features are not always associated with speciﬁc mutations (1). Statistics regarding the incidence of craniosynostoses are difﬁcult to assemble because cranial deformities often are not lethal, and are not always recognized at birth or recorded in adults. With lambdoidal craniosynostosis, anomalies in skull morphology usually precede complications such as visual impairment and increased intracranial pressure (ICP). Hydrocephalus frequently occurs with syndromic synostosis, and is rarely found in simple, nonsyndromic craniosynostosis, but increased ICP is not unusual. Elevated ICP appears to be the driving force behind the neurological deﬁcits.
This should include the following issues: – anonymity – conﬁdentiality – right to comment – the ﬁnal report – Data Protection cheap pariet 20mg with visa. X A longer cheap pariet 20mg fast delivery, more detailed Statement of Ethical Practice can be produced for anyone who requests a copy. Index action research, 16–17 dissemination, 60 aims and objectives, 56–57 anonymity, 151, 153 epistemology, 18 appendices, 138–139 ethics, 103 arithmetic mean, 127 ethnography, 17 extreme cases, 51 background research, 40–46 feminist research, 18 bibliography, 137–138 ﬁeld notes, 106–107 bivariate analysis, 126 focus group summary form, 114 body language, 70, 76 frequency counts, 123 box-ticking, 64, 88 budgets, 59–60 gaining access, 102–103 generalising, 47 census, 47 grounded theory, 18–19 closed-ended questionnaires, 31, 87–88 heterogeneous samples, 51 cluster sample, 50 Code of Ethics, 150–154 interactive questionnaires, 32 comparative analysis, 115, 116 interlibrary loan service, 43 conﬁdentiality, 151, 153 interval scales, 127 content analysis, 115, 118 interview schedule, 67–69 convenience sample, 51 interview summary form, 113 conversational analysis, 115, 119 interviewer-administered covering letter, 99 questionnaires, 87 covert participant observation, 33 journal articles, 140 Data Protection Act, 152–153 key informants, 107 direct observation, 32 discourse analysis, 115, 119 listening skills, 71 disproportionate stratiﬁed sample, 51 median, 127 157 158 / PRACTICAL RESEARCH METHODS memos, 112 reliability, 110 mode, 127 research ethics committees, 10– multivariate analysis, 126 11 research proposal, 55–63 nominal scales, 126 resources, 59–60 note-taking, 67 response rates, 97–98 open-ended questionnaires, 31, sample size, 49, 53 87–88 saturation point, 19 oral presentations, 141–142 secondary research, 40–42, 45 ordinal scales, 126–127 self-administered questionnaires, overt participant observation, 33 87–88 semi-structured interviews, 28–29 participant observation, 101–109 simple random sample, 50 personal disclosure, 69, 77 snowball sample, 50 personal proﬁle form, 96 stratiﬁed random sample, 51 piloting a questionnaire, 95, 97 structured interviews, 29 prestige bias, 89 systematic sample, 51 primary research, 40–41, 45 probability samples, 48–51 tape recorder, 64–67, 80 probing, 71–73 thematic analysis, 115–116 purposive samples, 48–51 theoretical sampling, 51 timetables, 58–59 qualitative research, 14–16 transcripts, 112 quantitative research, 15–16 triangulation, 20 quasi-random sample, 51 questionnaire layout, 93–94 univariate analysis, 123 questionnaire length, 93–94 quota sample, 50 validity, 110 venue, 81–82 rapport, 28, 70–71 video recorder, 66, 80 recruitment, 82–83 referencing, 137–138 written reports, 131–139 . Dr Catherine Dawson 1 H ow to efine Your Project Before you start to think about your research, you need to ask yourself a few questions. If the answer to this question is because you have been told to do so, either by your tutor or by your boss, you need to think about how you’re to remain motivated throughout your project. It is important to stay interested in what you’re doing if you are to complete your project suc- cessfully. However, if you want to conduct some research because something has fascinated you, or you have identi- ﬁed a gap in the research literature, then you are lucky and should not have a problem with motivation. Most of you do have this choice within the limitations of your subject – be creative and think about something which will fascinate you. However, if you have had the topic chosen for you, try instead choosing a re- search method which interests you. As you go on to read this book you will become more familiar with the diﬀerent methods and should be able to ﬁnd something in which 1 2 / PRACTICAL RESEARCH METHODS you are interested. If so, you may ﬁnd it interesting to delve deeper into statistical software. Or you might have been invited to take part in a focus group for a mar- ket research company and found it an interesting experi- ence. Perhaps now you would ﬁnd it enjoyable to try running your own focus group? Or maybe you have been fascinated by a particular group of people and you would like to immerse yourself within that group, taking part in their activities whilst studying their behaviour?
Drugs useful in the treatment of myoclonus include clonazepam purchase pariet 20mg with visa, sodium valproate buy pariet 20 mg fast delivery, primidone, and piracetam. These may need to be given in combination to suppress severe action myoclonus. Advances in Clinical Neuroscience & Rehabilitation 2003; 3(5): 20,22 Caviness JN. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 1996; 71: 679-688 Marsden CD, Hallett M, Fahn S. London, Butterworth, 1982: 196-248 Obeso JA, Artieda J, Rothwell JC, Day B, Thompson P, Marsden CD. Brain 1989; 112: 765-777 Cross References Asterixis; Chorea, Choreoathetosis; Fasciculation; Hiccups; Jactitation; Myokymia; Palatal myoclonus; Tic; Tremor Myoedema Myoedema, or muscle mounding, provoked by mechanical stimuli or stretching of muscle, is a feature of rippling muscle disease, in which the muscle contractions are associated with electrical silence. Muscle and Nerve 2002; Suppl 11: S103-S107 Myokymia Myokymia is an involuntary, spontaneous, wave-like, undulating, flickering movement within a muscle (cf. Myokymia is thus related to neuromyotonia and stiffness, since there may be concurrent impair- ment of muscle relaxation and a complaint of muscle cramps. Facial myokymia is a rare facial dyskinesia, possibly related to disinhibition of the facial (VII) nerve nucleus by focal pontine lesions (tumor, demyelination). Boston: Butterworth, 1994: 373-405 Cross References Fasciculation; Myotonia; Neuromyotonia; Stiffness Myopathy The term myopathy means a primary disorder of muscle causing wast- ing and/or weakness in the absence of sensory abnormalities. Clinically, myopathic processes need to be differentiated from neu- ropathies, particularly anterior horn cell diseases and motor neu- ropathies, and neuromuscular junction disorders. Generally in primary muscle disease there are no fasciculations, reflexes are lost late, and phenomena such as (peripheral) fatigue and facilitation do not occur. Myopathies may be subdivided according to the clinical pattern of weakness, and/or their etiology: ● Proximal: Affecting shoulder abductors, hip flexors predominantly: Inflammatory: polymyositis, dermatomyositis Progressive muscular dystrophies: Duchenne, Becker, limb- girdle, facioscapulohumeral (FSH) Metabolic: acid-maltase deficiency; thyroid dysfunction, Cushing’s syndrome Nonmetastatic feature of malignant disease.